Historical Papers

In the eight historical papers below can be found some of the conceptual cornerstones that, valid or not, continue to influence thinking today, as well as evidence that some ideas we think of as “new” were really known a long time ago. Look for Carroll and McAvoy to argue that every deposit upon the wings or parts of an airplane is not necessarily hazardous, Findeisen to advocate for “meteorologically correct navigation”, and Samuels to suggest that frost is never a hazard. The French committee report has an interesting discussion of inter-cycle ice with a pneumatic boot in the 1930s. In the 1950s, Grey and von Glahn began to document the drag effects of ice, and Bowden’s 1956 paper makes an early argument for short delays between boot cycles.

We know today that any ice can be hazardous, and certainly frost is hazardous. Meteorologically correct navigation is not nearly as easy as Findeisen seemed to think it was. But in Figure 27 (pg. 55) of Bowden's paper, he shows one of the most overlooked threats posed by ice accretion...the substantial drag rise incurred when ice is accreted at a low angle of attack, and then the angle of attack is increased. This effect is largely what lies behind the significant number of hard landings that occur with ice accretion.

Contemporary Papers

The nine contemporary papers and articles found in the second link below present some of the best contemporary information about several critical aspects of airframe icing, including discussions of inflight icing hazards by John Dow of the FAA Small Airplane Directorate in Kansas City, Jim Martin and Nick Czernkovich of Transport Canada, and a history of FAA icing definitions and rules by Dick Jeck of the FAA's William J. Hughes Technical Center in Atlantic City. Also included are papers describing the significant wind tunnel work done by Any Broeren and Mike Bragg of the University of Illinois, and a discussion of the freezing rain hazard by Ben Bernstein of the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

Green's Icing Papers and Articles

The final link  leads to a set of papers and reports that have been written by myself since 1996. The first link refers to an FAA Technical Paper which describes the construction and output of the Icemaster Database developed for the FAA between 2004 and 2014. Both the paper entitled A Study of U.S. Inflight Icing Accidents and Incidents, 1978-2002, and the presentation entitled A Study of U.S. Inflight Icing Accidents and Incidents, 1978-2005 describe some of the output from this database. Other papers and articles discuss the training objectives for air carrier pilots and the variety of threats posed to pilots by inflight icing.